Hello, I’m Hakan Cıncık, MD. I am an ear, nose, throat, head and neck surgery specialist.
Today I want to talk to you about nodules, and masses in the Thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is also known as the goiter gland. It is an organ located in the lower part of our neck, just above our rib cage, deep in our two neck muscles, and has very important functions for our lives. It constantly secretes hormones for the body, and this hormone is a very important hormone for a person’s daily life.
Sometimes masses may develop in the thyroid. These masses are the bumps inside the gland. That is, they are undesirable formations which come in different shapes. Diagnosis of these is usually made by ultrasound unless there is a very large mass. In ultrasound, the appearance of the mass in the gland, whether this mass is bad or good, and whether it is cancer or benign is understood. When we see such a patient, the first requested examination is ultrasound. Ultrasound enables the determination of the patient’s risk group according to the characteristics of the mass. If the mass has a benign ultrasound appearance, the risk here does not exceed 5%. However, sometimes the appearance of the mass on ultrasound, calcification, and excessive blood supply may suggest that the mass is suspicious.
If there is a nodule in the thyroid and it is larger than one centimeter, a needle biopsy is requested, even if it doesn’t have any bad characteristics. But even if it is smaller than one centimeter, a needle biopsy should still be done if there is anything suspicious on the ultrasound. What is a needle biopsy? Let’s think of the thyroid gland as a walnut. In it, an ultrasound-guided needle is inserted into a chickpea-sized nodule and certain amount of liquid is taken from this chickpea. This liquid is spread on the glass and the cells in it are examined. The pathologist gives us a risk ratio or makes a definitive diagnosis. if the mass is benign, it can be followed. However, the most common cancer in the thyroid gland with a rate of 80% is papillary cancer.
If there is a risk of papillary cancer or follicular cancer, surgery is recommended to patients. In this case, surgery is inevitable. The entire thyroid gland consists of two lobes. Right and left lobes. If one side is completely healthy, we try to maintain its function by removing the diseased side only and leaving the healthy side in the body. Because this gland has very important functions. When taken in its entirety, the hormone necessary for the body must be taken in pill form. This is how planning is done. If both lobes are thought to be cancerous, usually all of the two lobes are removed. Then, if necessary, we treat the masses in this area with treatments called radioactive iodine.
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